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Rotary Airlock Valves and How it Work

Rotary Airlock Valves and How It Work

Rotary Air Lock Valve

Rotary airlock valves are also called rotary feeders, rotary valves, or just rotary airlocks. Used in both pressure style and vacuum style pneumatic conveying systems, these valves serve as a “lock” to prevent air loss while simultaneously performing vital material handling functions. Though simple, the rotary airlock valve is a critical component to the efficiency of a conveying system. It’s important to remember that not all rotary valves are necessarily rotary airlock valves – but virtually all rotary airlocks are rotary valves.

What Happens Inside a Rotary Airlock Valve

The vanes, or metal blades, of a rotary airlock valve turn (rotate) during operation. As they do, pockets form between them. The material being handled enters the pockets through the inlet port before rotating around inside the valve and then exiting through the outlet port. In an airlock valve, air is sealed (locked) between the inlet and outlet ports. This allows the materials to travel downward through the valve from the inlet to the outlet port while restricting the airflow. Material is moved continuously through the presence of a constant air pressure between the ports. This pressure or vacuum difference must be maintained within the valve for proper function.

A Few Words About the Rotor Assembly

The rotor assembly in a rotary airlock valve consists of a set of blades welded to a rotary shaft. The rotor assembly in a rotary airlock valve is sometimes referred to as a the paddle wheel, impeller, or flipper. A six-vane rotor has six metal blades attached to the shaft, an eight-vane rotor has eight, and so on. A valve with more vanes tends to have greater sealing ability than one with less. As the number of blades increases, however, the size of the pockets between them decreases. Larger pocket size is ideal for processing larger materials or materials that tend to stick or pack together when compressed. Heavier materials and materials that flow quickly are not as greatly affected by the number of vanes and subsequent pocket size. It’s important to talk with a professional to figure out the optimal setup for the specific materials you’ll be handling. Another thing to discuss is whether you will need an open-end or closed-end rotor. In general, open-ended units are better suited for easy-flowing non-abrasive materials and closed-ended setups work best for materials that may have issues with flowing smoothly.

The Effects of Improperly Applied and Worn Airlocks

Airlocks, while simple, are an indispensable part of certain material conveying and processing operations. Using one incorrectly can cause machinery to suffer undue wear and operate less efficiently. It can also lead to increased costs due to extra maintenance and operator working hours. In the worst case, it can cause equipment to break or malfunction to the point that downtime is necessary.

Common Causes of Airlock Valve Wear

Wear-and-tear to the rotor, housing, or both is one of the leading causes of airlock valve failure. Processing abrasive materials causes cumulative damage to the surfaces inside the valve. Surface drag abrasion occurs when materials are trapped between two surfaces moving in different directions. It can also be the result of any kind of surface-on-surface contact where abrasive materials are between the two planes. Pneumatic assisted abrasion occurs when turbulent air, or “blow-by,” develops at the outlet port when using a pneumatic conveying system. This misdirected air can cause significant loss of efficiency and issues with material flow. This wayward air can also carry with it abrasive particles that can cause unnecessary damage to valve components.

Selecting the rotary airlock valve that will help your operations achieve optimum efficiency is highly important, so don’t leave it up to chance. Abster Equipment can find or fabricate the perfect valve for your needs. They also perform repairs on existing valves, and will give you honest answers about whether repair or replacement is the better option in your situation.


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Stainless Steel Chemical Compatibility Chart

Please Note: The information in this chart has been supplied by reputable sources and is to be used ONLY as a guide in selecting equipment for appropriate chemical compatibility. ALWAYS test your equipment under the specific conditions of your application before permanent installation.
Ratings of chemical behavior listed in this chart apply at a 48-hr exposure period. We have no knowledge of possible effects beyond this period. We do not warrant (neither express nor implied) that the information in this chart is accurate or complete or that any material is suitable for any purpose.

Chemical Compatibility
Acetaldehyde A-Excellent
Acetamide B-Good
Acetate Solvent A-Excellent
Acetic Acid D-Severe Effect
Acetic Acid 20% B-Good
Acetic Acid 80% D-Severe Effect
Acetic Acid, Glacial C-Fair
Acetic Anhydride B-Good
Acetone A-Excellent
Acetyl Bromide N/A
Acetyl Chloride (dry) A-Excellent
Acetylene A-Excellent
Acrylonitrile A1-Excellent
Adipic Acid A1-Excellent
Alcohols: Amyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Benzyl B-Good
Alcohols: Butyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Diacetone A-Excellent
Alcohols: Ethyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Hexyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Isobutyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Isopropyl B-Good
Alcohols: Methyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Octyl A-Excellent
Alcohols: Propyl A-Excellent
Aluminum Chloride B-Good
Aluminum Chloride 20% D-Severe Effect
Aluminum Fluoride D-Severe Effect
Aluminum Hydroxide A1-Excellent
Aluminum Nitrate A-Excellent
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate 10% A-Excellent
Aluminum Potassium Sulfate 100% D-Severe Effect
Aluminum Sulfate B-Good
Alums N/A
Amines A-Excellent
Ammonia 10% A-Excellent
Ammonia Nitrate A-Excellent
Ammonia, anhydrous A-Excellent
Ammonia, liquid B2-Good
Ammonium Acetate B-Good
Ammonium Bifluoride D-Severe Effect
Ammonium Carbonate B-Good
Ammonium Caseinate N/A
Ammonium Chloride C-Fair
Ammonium Hydroxide A1-Excellent
Ammonium Nitrate A1-Excellent
Ammonium Oxalate A-Excellent
Ammonium Persulfate A-Excellent
Ammonium Phosphate, Dibasic B-Good
Ammonium Phosphate, Monobasic B-Good
Ammonium Phosphate, Tribasic B-Good
Ammonium Sulfate B-Good
Ammonium Sulfite B-Good
Ammonium Thiosulfate N/A
Amyl Acetate A1-Excellent
Amyl Alcohol A-Excellent
Amyl Chloride A2-Excellent
Aniline A-Excellent
Aniline Hydrochloride D-Severe Effect
Antifreeze N/A
Antimony Trichloride D-Severe Effect
Aqua Regia (80% HCl, 20% HNO3) D-Severe Effect
Arochlor 1248 B-Good
Aromatic Hydrocarbons N/A
Arsenic Acid A2-Excellent
Arsenic Salts N/A
Asphalt B-Good
Barium Carbonate B1-Good
Barium Chloride A1-Excellent
Barium Cyanide A1-Excellent
Barium Hydroxide B1-Good
Barium Nitrate B1-Good
Barium Sulfate B1-Good
Barium Sulfide B1-Good
Beer A-Excellent
Beet Sugar Liquids A-Excellent
Benzaldehyde B-Good
Benzene B-Good
Benzene Sulfonic Acid B-Good
Benzoic Acid B-Good
Benzol A1-Excellent
Benzonitrile D-Severe Effect
Benzyl Chloride C1-Fair
Bleaching Liquors N/A
Borax (Sodium Borate) A-Excellent
Boric Acid B2-Good
Brewery Slop N/A
Bromine D-Severe Effect
Butadiene A-Excellent
Butane A2-Excellent
Butanol (Butyl Alcohol) A-Excellent
Butter C-Fair
Buttermilk A-Excellent
Butyl Amine N/A
Butyl Ether N/A
Butyl Phthalate B1-Good
Butylacetate B-Good
Butylene A-Excellent
Butyric Acid B2-Good
Calcium Bisulfate N/A
Calcium Bisulfide B-Good
Calcium Bisulfite B-Good
Calcium Carbonate A1-Excellent
Calcium Chlorate N/A
Calcium Chloride C2-Fair
Calcium Hydroxide B1-Good
Calcium Hypochlorite C1-Fair
Calcium Nitrate C1-Fair
Calcium Oxide A-Excellent
Calcium Sulfate B-Good
Calgon A-Excellent
Cane Juice A-Excellent
Carbolic Acid (Phenol) B-Good
Carbon Bisulfide A-Excellent
Carbon Dioxide (dry) A-Excellent
Carbon Dioxide (wet) A-Excellent
Carbon Disulfide A1-Excellent
Carbon Monoxide A-Excellent
Carbon Tetrachloride B-Good
Carbon Tetrachloride (dry) B-Good
Carbon Tetrachloride (wet) A2-Excellent
Carbonated Water A-Excellent
Carbonic Acid A1-Excellent
Catsup A-Excellent
Chloric Acid D-Severe Effect
Chlorinated Glue N/A
Chlorine (dry) A1-Excellent
Chlorine Water C-Fair
Chlorine, Anhydrous Liquid C1-Fair
Chloroacetic Acid B1-Good
Chlorobenzene (Mono) A-Excellent
Chlorobromomethane N/A
Chloroform A-Excellent
Chlorosulfonic Acid D-Severe Effect
Chocolate Syrup A-Excellent
Chromic Acid 10% B-Good
Chromic Acid 30% B2-Good
Chromic Acid 5% B-Good
Chromic Acid 50% C-Fair
Chromium Salts N/A
Cider A-Excellent
Citric Acid B1-Good
Citric Oils A-Excellent
Cloroxr (Bleach) A-Excellent
Coffee A-Excellent
Copper Chloride D-Severe Effect
Copper Cyanide B-Good
Copper Fluoborate D-Severe Effect
Copper Nitrate A-Excellent
Copper Sulfate>5% B-Good
Copper Sulfate 5% B-Good
Cream A-Excellent
Cresols A2-Excellent
Cresylic Acid A1-Excellent
Cupric Acid D-Severe Effect
Cyanic Acid A-Excellent
Cyclohexane A1-Excellent
Cyclohexanone A1-Excellent
Detergents A1-Excellent
Diacetone Alcohol B1-Good
Dichlorobenzene N/A
Dichloroethane B-Good
Diesel Fuel A1-Excellent
Diethyl Ether B1-Good
Diethylamine A-Excellent
Diethylene Glycol A1-Excellent
Dimethyl Aniline B2-Good
Dimethyl Formamide A-Excellent
Diphenyl B-Good
Diphenyl Oxide B1-Good
Dyes A-Excellent
Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate) A-Excellent
Ethane A-Excellent
Ethanol A-Excellent
Ethanolamine A-Excellent
Ether A-Excellent
Ethyl Acetate B-Good
Ethyl Benzoate N/A
Ethyl Chloride A-Excellent
Ethyl Ether B-Good
Ethyl Sulfate D-Severe Effect
Ethylene Bromide A-Excellent
Ethylene Chloride B-Good
Ethylene Chlorohydrin B-Good
Ethylene Diamine B1-Good
Ethylene Dichloride B-Good
Ethylene Glycol B-Good
Ethylene Oxide B-Good
Fatty Acids B-Good
Ferric Chloride D-Severe Effect
Ferric Nitrate B-Good
Ferric Sulfate B1-Good
Ferrous Chloride D-Severe Effect
Ferrous Sulfate B-Good
Fluoboric Acid B-Good
Fluorine C-Fair
Fluosilicic Acid C-Fair
Formaldehyde 100% C-Fair
Formaldehyde 40% A1-Excellent
Formic Acid B1-Good
Freon 113 N/A
Freon 12 B1-Good
Freon 22 A-Excellent
Freon TF A-Excellent
Freonr 11 A-Excellent
Fruit Juice A-Excellent
Fuel Oils A-Excellent
Furan Resin A1-Excellent
Furfural A-Excellent
Gallic Acid A-Excellent
Gasoline (high-aromatic) A-Excellent
Gasoline, leaded, ref. A1-Excellent
Gasoline, unleaded A1-Excellent
Gelatin A2-Excellent
Glucose A1-Excellent
Glue, P.V.A. A1-Excellent
Glycerin A2-Excellent
Glycolic Acid A-Excellent
Gold Monocyanide A-Excellent
Grape Juice A-Excellent
Grease N/A
Heptane A-Excellent
Hexane A-Excellent
Honey A-Excellent
Hydraulic Oil (Petro) A-Excellent
Hydraulic Oil (Synthetic) A-Excellent
Hydrazine A-Excellent
Hydrobromic Acid 100% D-Severe Effect
Hydrobromic Acid 20% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid 100% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid 20% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid 37% D-Severe Effect
Hydrochloric Acid, Dry Gas D-Severe Effect
Hydrocyanic Acid B1-Good
Hydrocyanic Acid (Gas 10%) N/A
Hydrofluoric Acid 100% B1-Good
Hydrofluoric Acid 20% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluoric Acid 50% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluoric Acid 75% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluosilicic Acid 100% D-Severe Effect
Hydrofluosilicic Acid 20% C2-Fair
Hydrogen Gas A-Excellent
Hydrogen Peroxide 10% B2-Good
Hydrogen Peroxide 100% B2-Good
Hydrogen Peroxide 30% B2-Good
Hydrogen Peroxide 50% B2-Good
Hydrogen Sulfide (aqua) C-Fair
Hydrogen Sulfide (dry) C1-Fair
Hydroquinone B-Good
Hydroxyacetic Acid 70% N/A
Ink C-Fair
Iodine D-Severe Effect
Iodine (in alcohol) N/A
Iodoform A-Excellent
Isooctane A1-Excellent
Isopropyl Acetate C-Fair
Isopropyl Ether A-Excellent
Isotane N/A
Jet Fuel (JP3, JP4, JP5) A-Excellent
Kerosene A-Excellent
Ketones A-Excellent
Lacquer Thinners A1-Excellent
Lacquers A1-Excellent
Lactic Acid B1-Good
Lard A-Excellent
Latex A2-Excellent
Lead Acetate B-Good
Lead Nitrate B1-Good
Lead Sulfamate C-Fair
Ligroin N/A
Lime A-Excellent
Linoleic Acid B-Good
Lithium Chloride A1-Excellent
Lithium Hydroxide B-Good
Lubricants A2-Excellent
Lye: Ca(OH)2 Calcium Hydroxide B1-Good
Lye: KOH Potassium Hydroxide B-Good
Lye: NaOH Sodium Hydroxide B-Good
Magnesium Bisulfate A1-Excellent
Magnesium Carbonate B-Good
Magnesium Chloride D-Severe Effect
Magnesium Hydroxide B-Good
Magnesium Nitrate B-Good
Magnesium Oxide A-Excellent
Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salts) A-Excellent
Maleic Acid A-Excellent
Maleic Anhydride A-Excellent
Malic Acid A-Excellent
Manganese Sulfate B-Good
Mash A-Excellent
Mayonnaise C-Fair
Melamine N/A
Mercuric Chloride (dilute) D-Severe Effect
Mercuric Cyanide C-Fair
Mercurous Nitrate A1-Excellent
Mercury A-Excellent
Methane A-Excellent
Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) A-Excellent
Methyl Acetate A-Excellent
Methyl Acetone A-Excellent
Methyl Acrylate A-Excellent
Methyl Alcohol 10% A-Excellent
Methyl Bromide A-Excellent
Methyl Butyl Ketone A-Excellent
Methyl Cellosolve B-Good
Methyl Chloride A-Excellent
Methyl Dichloride N/A
Methyl Ethyl Ketone A-Excellent
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide N/A
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone B-Good
Methyl Isopropyl Ketone A-Excellent
Methyl Methacrylate B-Good
Methylamine A-Excellent
Methylene Chloride B-Good
Milk A-Excellent
Mineral Spirits A-Excellent
Molasses A-Excellent
Monochloroacetic acid A1-Excellent
Monoethanolamine A-Excellent
Morpholine N/A
Motor oil A1-Excellent
Mustard A-Excellent
Naphtha A-Excellent
Naphthalene A-Excellent
Natural Gas A-Excellent
Nickel Chloride D-Severe Effect
Nickel Nitrate B-Good
Nickel Sulfate B-Good
Nitrating Acid (<15% HNO3) C-Fair
Nitrating Acid (>15% H2SO4) C-Fair
Nitrating Acid (S1% Acid) C-Fair
Nitrating Acid (S15% H2SO4) C-Fair
Nitric Acid (20%) A-Excellent
Nitric Acid (50%) A2-Excellent
Nitric Acid (5-10%) A-Excellent
Nitric Acid (Concentrated) A1-Excellent
Nitrobenzene B-Good
Nitrogen Fertilizer N/A
Nitromethane A-Excellent
Nitrous Acid B-Good
Nitrous Oxide B-Good
Oils: Aniline A-Excellent
Oils: Anise N/A
Oils: Bay N/A
Oils: Bone N/A
Oils: Castor A-Excellent
Oils: Cinnamon A-Excellent
Oils: Citric A-Excellent
Oils: Clove A-Excellent
Oils: Coconut A-Excellent
Oils: Cod Liver A-Excellent
Oils: Corn A-Excellent
Oils: Cottonseed A-Excellent
Oils: Creosote B-Good
Oils: Diesel Fuel Oil (20, 30, 40, 50) A-Excellent
Oils: Fuel Oil (1, 2, 3, 5A, 5B, 6) A-Excellent
Oils: Ginger D-Severe Effect
Oils: Hydraulic Oil (Petro) A-Excellent
Oils: Hydraulic Oil (Synthetic) A-Excellent
Oils: Lemon A-Excellent
Oils: Linseed A-Excellent
Oils: Mineral A-Excellent
Oils: Olive A-Excellent
Oils: Orange A-Excellent
Oils: Palm A-Excellent
Oils: Peanut A-Excellent
Oils: Peppermint A-Excellent
Oils: Pine A-Excellent
Oils: Rapeseed A-Excellent
Oils: Rosin A1-Excellent
Oils: Sesame Seed A-Excellent
Oils: Silicone A-Excellent
Oils: Soybean A-Excellent
Oils: Sperm (whale) A-Excellent
Oils: Tanning A-Excellent
Oils: Transformer A-Excellent
Oils: Turbine A-Excellent
Oleic Acid A-Excellent
Oleum 100% A-Excellent
Oleum 25% B2-Good
Oxalic Acid (cold) B-Good
Ozone B-Good
Palmitic Acid B1-Good
Paraffin A-Excellent
Pentane C-Fair
Perchloric Acid C-Fair
Perchloroethylene B-Good
Petrolatum A-Excellent
Petroleum A1-Excellent
Phenol (10%) B-Good
Phenol (Carbolic Acid) B-Good
Phosphoric Acid (>40%) D-Severe Effect
Phosphoric Acid (crude) D-Severe Effect
Phosphoric Acid (molten) N/A
Phosphoric Acid (S40%) D-Severe Effect
Phosphoric Acid Anhydride N/A
Phosphorus A2-Excellent
Phosphorus Trichloride A1-Excellent
Photographic Developer A-Excellent
Photographic Solutions D-Severe Effect
Phthalic Acid B2-Good
Phthalic Anhydride A-Excellent
Picric Acid B-Good
Plating Solutions, Antimony Plating 130°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions, Arsenic Plating 110°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Brass): High-Speed Brass Bath 110°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Brass): Regular Brass Bath 100°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Bronze): Cu-Cd Bronze Bath R.T. A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Bronze): Cu-Sn Bronze Bath 160°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Bronze): Cu-Zn Bronze Bath 100°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Cadmium): Cyanide Bath 90°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Cadmium): Fluoborate Bath 100°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Barrel Chrome Bath 95°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Black Chrome Bath 115°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Chromic-Sulfuric Bath 130°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Fluoride Bath 130°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Chromium): Fluosilicate Bath 95°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Acid): Copper Fluoborate Bath 120°F A-Excellent
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Acid): Copper Sulfate Bath R.T. N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Cyanide): Copper Strike Bath 120°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Cyanide): High-Speed Bath 180°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Cyanide): Rochelle Salt Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Misc): Copper (Electroless) N/A
Plating Solutions (Copper) (Misc): Copper Pyrophosphate N/A
Plating Solutions (Gold): Acid 75°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Gold): Cyanide 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Gold): Neutral 75°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Indium Sulfamate Plating R.T. N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Ferrous Am Sulfate Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Ferrous Chloride Bath 190°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Ferrous Sulfate Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Fluoborate Bath 145°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Sulfamate 140°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Iron): Sulfate-Chloride Bath 160°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Lead Fluoborate Plating N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Electroless 200°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Fluoborate 100-170°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): High-Chloride 130-160°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Sulfamate 100-140°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Nickel): Watts Type 115-160°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Rhodium) 120°F N/A
Plating Solutions, (Silver) 80-120°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Tin-Fluoborate Plating 100°F N/A
Plating Solutions, Tin-Lead Plating 100°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Acid Chloride 140°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Acid Fluoborate Bath R.T. N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Acid Sulfate Bath 150°F N/A
Plating Solutions (Zinc): Alkaline Cyanide Bath R.T. N/A
Potash (Potassium Carbonate) B-Good
Potassium Bicarbonate B-Good
Potassium Bromide B-Good
Potassium Chlorate B1-Good
Potassium Chloride B1-Good
Potassium Chromate B1-Good
Potassium Cyanide Solutions B1-Good
Potassium Dichromate B-Good
Potassium Ferricyanide B1-Good
Potassium Ferrocyanide B-Good
Potassium Hydroxide (Caustic Potash) B-Good
Potassium Hypochlorite C1-Fair
Potassium Iodide A1-Excellent
Potassium Nitrate B-Good
Potassium Oxalate B-Good
Potassium Permanganate B1-Good
Potassium Sulfate B1-Good
Potassium Sulfide B-Good
Propane (liquefied) A-Excellent
Propylene B1-Good
Propylene Glycol B-Good
Pyridine A-Excellent
Pyrogallic Acid B2-Good
Resorcinal N/A
Rosins A1-Excellent
Rum A-Excellent
Rust Inhibitors A-Excellent
Salad Dressings A-Excellent
Salicylic Acid B2-Good
Salt Brine (NaCl saturated) B1-Good
Sea Water C-Fair
Shellac (Bleached) A-Excellent
Shellac (Orange) A-Excellent
Silicone A-Excellent
Silver Bromide D-Severe Effect
Silver Nitrate B-Good
Soap Solutions A-Excellent
Soda Ash (see Sodium Carbonate) A-Excellent
Sodium Acetate B-Good
Sodium Aluminate A-Excellent
Sodium Benzoate N/A
Sodium Bicarbonate A-Excellent
Sodium Bisulfate D-Severe Effect
Sodium Bisulfite B1-Good
Sodium Borate (Borax) B2-Good
Sodium Bromide C-Fair
Sodium Carbonate A-Excellent
Sodium Chlorate A-Excellent
Sodium Chloride B-Good
Sodium Chromate B1-Good
Sodium Cyanide A1-Excellent
Sodium Ferrocyanide B-Good
Sodium Fluoride D-Severe Effect
Sodium Hydrosulfite N/A
Sodium Hydroxide (20%) B-Good
Sodium Hydroxide (50%) B-Good
Sodium Hydroxide (80%) C-Fair
Sodium Hypochlorite (<20%) C-Fair
Sodium Hypochlorite (100%) D-Severe Effect
Sodium Hyposulfate A-Excellent
Sodium Metaphosphate A-Excellent
Sodium Metasilicate A-Excellent
Sodium Nitrate B1-Good
Sodium Perborate B-Good
Sodium Peroxide A-Excellent
Sodium Polyphosphate B-Good
Sodium Silicate A-Excellent
Sodium Sulfate B-Good
Sodium Sulfide B-Good
Sodium Sulfite B-Good
Sodium Tetraborate A2-Excellent
Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) A2-Excellent
Sorghum A-Excellent
Soy Sauce A-Excellent
Stannic Chloride D-Severe Effect
Stannic Fluoborate N/A
Stannous Chloride C2-Fair
Starch A-Excellent
Stearic Acid B-Good
Stoddard Solvent A-Excellent
Styrene A-Excellent
Sugar (Liquids) A-Excellent
Sulfate (Liquors) B-Good
Sulfur Chloride D-Severe Effect
Sulfur Dioxide D-Severe Effect
Sulfur Dioxide (dry) D-Severe Effect
Sulfur Hexafluoride N/A
Sulfur Trioxide A-Excellent
Sulfur Trioxide (dry) D-Severe Effect
Sulfuric Acid (<10%) D-Severe Effect
Sulfuric Acid (10-75%) D-Severe Effect
Sulfuric Acid (75-100%) C-Fair
Sulfuric Acid (cold concentrated) C-Fair
Sulfuric Acid (hot concentrated) D-Severe Effect
Sulfurous Acid B1-Good
Sulfuryl Chloride N/A
Tallow A-Excellent
Tannic Acid B1-Good
Tanning Liquors A2-Excellent
Tartaric Acid C2-Fair
Tetrachloroethane B-Good
Tetrachloroethylene N/A
Tetrahydrofuran A-Excellent
Tin Salts N/A
Toluene (Toluol) A-Excellent
Tomato Juice A-Excellent
Trichloroacetic Acid D-Severe Effect
Trichloroethane B-Good
Trichloroethylene B-Good
Trichloropropane A-Excellent
Tricresylphosphate B-Good
Triethylamine A-Excellent
Trisodium Phosphate B-Good
Turpentine A-Excellent
Urea B-Good
Uric Acid B-Good
Urine A-Excellent
Varnish A-Excellent
Vegetable Juice A-Excellent
Vinegar A-Excellent
Vinyl Acetate B-Good
Vinyl Chloride B2-Good
Water, Acid, Mine B-Good
Water, Deionized A1-Excellent
Water, Distilled A-Excellent
Water, Fresh A-Excellent
Water, Salt B-Good
Weed Killers A-Excellent
Whey A-Excellent
Whiskey & Wines A-Excellent
White Liquor (Pulp Mill) A-Excellent
White Water (Paper Mill) A-Excellent
Xylene B-Good
Zinc Chloride B-Good
Zinc Hydrosulfite A-Excellent
Zinc Sulfate B1-Good

Fluidized Bed Dryer

Fluidize bed dryer (also called fluid bed dryer) is a kind of equipment used extensively in the pharmaceutical industries to reduce the moisture content of pharmaceutical powder and granules. The equipment works on a principle of fluidization of the feed materials. In fluidization process, hot air is introduced at high pressure through a perforated bed of moist solid particulate. The wet solids are lifted from the bottom and suspended in a stream of air (fluidized state). Heat transfer is accomplished by direct contact between the wet solid and hot gases. The vaporised liquid is carried away by the drying gasses. Sometimes to save energy, the exit gas is partially recycled.

A typical fluidized bed dryer consists of the following components

  • Air preparatory unit.
  • Product container.
  • Exhaust filter.
  • Exhaust blower.
  • Control panel.
  • Air distribution plate.
  • Spray nozzle.
  • Solution deliver.

The choice of distributor used during and drying process apart from ensuring uniform and stable fluidization also prevents

  1. Poor fluidization quality of solids in certain regions in the fluidized bed dryer.
  2. Plugging of distributor –perforated holes.
  3. Solids from dropping into wind box or gas plenum located beneath the fluidized bed.

The pressure drops across the distributor must be high enough to ensure good and uniform fluidization.

Parameters to be controlled in fluidized bed dryers (system)

In order to improve operation, efficiency, and reproducibility of a fluid bed dryer, some parameters need to be controlled. These parameters are categorized into:

  • Apparatus parameters: Those controlled by the equipment.
  • Process parameters: Those controlled by the process.
  • Product parameters: Those controlled by the product.

Apparatus/Equipment Parameter

  • Position of the air distribution plate: This parameter influences the pattern.
  • Shape of the instrument: The annular based design gives a better product.
  • Nozzle height: Nozzle height plays a vital role when fluidized bed dryer is used as a coating machine. The atomized coating solution should not get dried before reaching the tablet surface.

Process/Operating Parameter

  • Temperature: Increased temperature leads to increased moisture diffusivity and hence increased drying rate and decreased drying time. The nature of the material plays an important role in choosing the operating temperature.
  • Humidity: Faster drying is achieved when the moisture content of the inlet air is maintained at its minimum.
  • Airflow rate/gas velocity: Increasing gas velocity increases drying rate but should be maintained at an optimized rate (not to fast or too slow). Gas velocity has no effect on particles with high internal resistance to moisture transfer.

Product Parameters

  • Moisture content of the feed material.
  • Feed rate/batch size.
  • Product moisture content.
  • Particle size, shape, and diameter.

Types of Fluidized-Bed Dryers

There are various types of fluidized bed dryer and an individual’s familiarity with the specific characteristics of these various types enables one to make a logical and cost-effective selection of fluidized bed dryer for a drying operation. In many instances, several different types may provide similar performance at the same cost. It should be noted also that not all modified fluidized bed dryers are necessarily better than the conventional dryers in terms of product quality, or energy efficiency, or drug performance.

Conventional Fluidized Bed Dryers

Conventional fluidized bed dryers include;

  • Batch fluidized bed dryers.
  • Semi-continuous fluidized bed dryers.
  • Well-mixed, continuous fluidized dryers.
  • Plug flow fluidized bed dryer.

Modified Fluidized Bed Dryers

Various types of modified fluidized bed dryers have been developed and are applied in many industrial processes to overcome some of the problems encountered while using conventional fluidized bed dryer and for a drying process. They include but not limited to

 

  • Hybrid fluidized bed dryers
  • Pulsating fluidized bed dryers
  • Fluidized bed dryer with immersed heat exchange.
  • Mechanically assisted fluidized bed dryer.
  • Vibrated fluidized bed dryer.
  • Agitated fluidized bed dryer/swirl fluidizers.
  • Fluidized bed dryers of inert particles.
  • Spouted bed dryer.
  • Recirculating fluidized bed dryer.
  • Jetting fluidized bed dryer.
  • Superheated steam fluidized bed dryer.
  • Fluidized bed freeze dryer.
  • Heat pump fluidized dryers.

It should be noted that not all modified fluidized bed dryers are necessarily better than the conventional dryers
in terms of product quality, or energy efficiency, or drying performance.

Advantages of Fluidized bed Dryer

  • High rates of moisture removal due to excellent gas-particle constant which results in high heat and mass transfer rates.
  • High thermal efficiency is usually achieved if part of the thermal energy for drying is supplied by the internal heat exchanger
  • Lower capital and maintenance cost
  • Reduced contact time for drying.
  • Ease of control.

Disadvantages of Fluidized Dryer

  • High pressure drops results as a result of the need to suspend the entire bed in gas which equally leads to high energy consumption.
  • Requires increased gas handling due to extensive recirculation of exhausts gas for high thermal efficiency operation.
  • Poor fluidization and low flexibility especially if the feed is too wet.
  • Not the best choice of equipment when organic solvents need to be removed during drying.
  • Non-uniform product quality for certain types of fluidized bed dryer.
  • Entertainment of fine particles.
  • High potential for attrition; and in some cases agglomeration of fine particles.
  • The conventional hot air fluidized bed dryer is not a good choice of dryer when handling toxic or flammable solids since there is danger of fire or explosion of flammability limits are exceeded.

Reference

  • Arun S. Mujumdar (2015). Handbook of Industrial Drying. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York.

Spice Eto Sterilizer

Category : Info

Spice ETO Sterilizer

Spice ETO Sterilizer

ethylene oxide treatment spices

We have carved a niche to be a reputed manufacturer associated with Spice ETO Sterilizer. Sterilization is the term for the elimination associated with microbial life, which includes fungi, bacteria, Trojans, spore forms, and many others. Present on a surface, contained inside a fluid, in drugs, or in a compound like biological culture media. Sterilization can be achieved by applying the correct combinations of warmth, chemicals, irradiation, questionable, and filtration.

The particular Spice ETO Sterilization Machine is equipped with automatic temperature command mechanism. In ETO sterilization bacteria die on the coagulation or denaturation with the protein constituents. Spice ETO Sterilizer contain primary variables including gas concentration, dampness, temperature and time period. Spice ETO Sterilizer assures that the safe and sterile product will likely be delivered to the esteemed client within the domestic and international market.

ETO may be the technology of preference for sterilizing in addition to pasteurizing spices. ABster Equipment may be the leading provider of contract ETO Sterilization services at a network of services nationwide.

Eo gas is then added and allowed to sit with the product. histrocaly the amount o Gas added was set to perticular weight. however the evolution of the process has gradually gone to adding gas to a validated pressure(concentration o gas).

during this “Sitting Phase” or “EO Gas Dwall Phase” the products abosrbs EO gas. to maintain the gas concentraion and offset the absorpation – additional gas is added.

Following the Gas Dwell phase a series of evecution and air imbleeds ocuur. This helps in the removal of the gas from the products. the products is then transered to an aeration Chamber or ROOm where EO (and Eo degradation products) dissipates safely fron the products. Depending on the nature of the products/packaging and aeration conditions theis gas dissipation period may last from several hours to weeks (and even moths).


APPLICATIONS OF ETHYLENE OXIDE STERILIZERS

  • In hydration plants where (onion powder, onion flakes, garlic powder, garlic flakes.
  • Products are manufactured and exported.
  • In plywood industries where ply woods are sterilized against white ants and residual bacteria.
  • In food industries where various seeds like sesame seeds are sterilized and exported. Wheat flour, grains, all types of spices etc.
  • In pharmaceutical products, hospitals, Used in industries where all the food products are exported.
  • IV Sets, IV Catheters, cannula, Syringes, Urine bags, blood bags.

ETO Sterilizer : We are manufacturers & Exporter of ETO Sterilization, Ethylene Oxide Sterilizers, ETO Sterilzation Equipment, Pharmaceutical ETO Sterilizers, Medical Sterilizers Suppliers, ETO Sterilizers, ETO Sterilizer, Stem Sterilizer, E.T.O. Sterilizer and E.T.O. Sterilization in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Rajkot, Kolkata, Pune, India.